He might be too enthusiastic, he might be weak, and he might be overactive. But he's trying to be part of this world of flying. He never die out his passion. Learnt himself that he's going for his dream, and Flying is every pilot's soul. He wants to be a pilot no matter what, because he likes to fly. Outgoing as well to meet all friends throughout the whole world. And that he is me :)

Tuesday, November 6, 2012

Effect of Controls (EOC), the start of screwing and the start of feeling to the Lady Aircraft

Hahahax. Effect Of Controls, (EOC), basically you guys had covered yourself in flight simulator, where you play your plane up, down, left, right. In this chapter, EOC doesn't seem only covered in this up down left right in such a way like pilot commands the aircraft to go up and down. It's only done in manual where you could learn from those self experiencing and touching controls. xD

Before you went for your flight, there's quite number of things you need to prepare yourself. To give you some idea how you prepare for your flight, here are the things before you start your flight for the day:

1) Study & Learn The Topic
Study? Not again? But this is needed to prepare before your flight. There are quite number of topics before your flight. Study the techniques and the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is basically needed for your flight. For Example, Effect Of Controls, what are the effects of using aileron, elevator and rudder? Using such controls basically is important for your fundamentals to flying. There are primary effects of using those controls and as well secondary effect of using those controls. Study and revise them before you go for your flight, especially your flying manual given by your academy!!! SOP are basically your bible and laws flying around, which is applicable to every airline and academy, but remember, every airline and academy has their own SOP, please study through and revise it.

2) Eat Well, Sleep Well, Drink Well, Exercise Well
Well Well, what's the idea here? Eat Sleep Drink and Exercise are basic needs for a pilot. Eating balanced diet and sufficient food for all three main meals, especially breakfast, lunch and dinner. Breakfast are the most compulsory and unavoidable meal for everyone. This is the meal that will absorb the most nutrients and vitamins. So eat well. For every pilots, Do Not SKIP any MEALS as you might collapse at any moment, especially flying.What if you collapse when you fly solo flights? You might not only kill yourself but killing other people on where you crash. Afterall, your near ones will be most suffering. Please Eat well before you go for your flight. Drinking also affect your flying if you don't drink enough. As you go higher, humidity become less and your skin starts to get dry. Therefore, drink plenty of WARM water and bring along the water bottle. In addition, sleep affects your performance on your day. Avoid any caffeine intake to disrupt your sleepiness. Sleep yourself in a comfort and relaxing way to maximize your performance on your day. Lastly, exercise yourself to keep yourself fit. There are plenty of exercises you can do, but I won't list out as I bet everyone have their own favorite sports.

3) Bathe Yourself, Makeup Yourself
Haha, I think most aviation enthusiasts like this part as a pilot. Yes, pilots need to bath themselves before flight to make themselves fresh and clean before flight. Iron their uniform, wearing their tie and wear on their bars before going out from their room. I'm sure you guys don't like a smelly and untidy pilot to go for flight. But to tell you guys, quite number of percentage don't wear tie for the flight because it is quite hot and crampy inside Diamond DA-40. But for me, I prefer myself wearing tie around for flying. Fragrance, deodorant and some sweets are basically needed for pilots to make themselves fresh. Thus, shoe maybe polished to look themselves better. A saying, makeup yourself better gives good impression to everyone.

4) Arrive Early
Wow, seriously? Arrive early for what? This word early, basically is a preparation for yourself actually. On time doesn't mean you will always get better result. Prepare yourself early perhaps in terms of your physical and mental. I saw some people rushing and gasping for the final time before instructor comes, which gave a very bad impression to captains and instructor. What's the deal if you arrive early? Let me explain what you have to do in our HM Aerospace? You might need to take airport passes each day if you want to access yourself to Hangar and Apron area. It needs your walking distance from hangar to the airport for daily passes.
On top of that, you might need some meal if you are flying on afternoon session. So, here we got Marrybrown, Anjung Selera, Starbucks. And basically, most of cadets will come to Anjung Selera for their lunch. And I'm sure you guys might be familiar with this document:
It's the Mass & Balance Load & Trim Sheet. It's a mandatory document for cadets to fill in. So mostly, we need to calculate the Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW) Take Off Weight (TOW) and Landing Weight (LW). This document must be filled before you prepare for your flight. Beginners need to take quite some minutes to finish it though. However, practice makes perfect. To take the basic empty weight, it's stated in this documents with aircraft registration. Of course you need converter to convert those units.
On top of that, you might need to check your timetable, consult flight dispatch for aircraft registration and time for your flight.
The time on the previous flight might had consumed some fuel. So check it out before you make your load and trim sheet. Lastly you have to prepare yourself in terms of your physical and mentally in the briefing room, as your instructor will start to ask and brief about the flight you are going to fly for your air exercises.
So my day for today was quite bright and shiny...Can see from the background, blue skies, no low clouds and the new Ace the Skyrider Livery was doing the pushback... Isn't that great? Today is my second flight, as well my second preflight check. I prepared myself the RT written on the paper, which require me to say smoothly and diligently. Jet A1 fuel can be smelt when I used my fuel drainer, and made my hand oily though.  Checking the oil dip stick, ensuring there's enough oil operation on your flight. Gotta check the lights, pitot, stall horn, tail, fuselage, wing, tyres, and lastly the main component, propeller.

Today I fly Whiskey, not the wine Whiskey but the registration mark is 9M-HMW. The letter W in communication code stands for Whiskey. Let me list out all the communication code here:

A - Alpha
B - Bravo
C - Charlie
D - Delta
E - Echo
F - Foxtrot
G - Golf
H - Hotel
I - India
J - Juliet
K -Kilo
L - Lima
M - Mike
N - November
O - Oscar
P - Papa
Q - Quebec
R - Romeo
S - Sierra
T - Tango
U - Uniform
V - Victor
W - Whiskey
X - X-ray
Y - Yankee
Z - Zulu

So how you pronounce 9M-HMW? It's pronounced as Niner Mike Hotel Mike Whiskey. It's a registration mark for all the aircraft, just like the car plate registration. They are printed mostly at the back of fuselage and under the wing. Beside my plane is another instructor, Captain Wesley Tan, whom taught my batchmates as well, Ali and Kenny. They are using 9M-HMK though, the firstly screwed aircraft to me. So what happens is that they are being introduced on their flight, which is the FAM flight I covered earlier.
But how you get your aircraft to be used? I did mention on the preparation before flight on top of this blog. So, let's dip ourselves inside into the flight.
Wow, so many instruments, but yes, one fact about this. Why all instruments are covered in such a way? You can see four basic instruments are covered, Artificial Horizon, Altimeter, Directional Indicator and lastly your vertical speed indicator. Before that, let's dig and learn ourselves more about those Basic Six Instruments.

1) Airspeed Indicator (ASI)
This instrument is called airspeed indicator. It measures aircraft speed in relation to motion. However, if you notice the airspeed for this instrument, it measures from 40 knots to a maximum of 200 knots. To measure airspeed, you require the help of moving air, measuring the pressure of air inside this indicator to work. On the other hand, you might see that there are four kind of colours in the instrument, green, white, yellow and red. I guess most of you heard a lot of V something with different variations. So let me explain what are those.

Green : Normal Operating Speed (Vno)
White : Flaps Operating Speed Range
Yellow: Caution Operating Speed
Red: Never Exceed Speed (Vne)

Vfe means speed with flaps extending
Vx means climbing speed with best climbing angle.
Vy means climbing speed with best climbing speed.

Normally our climbing will be using Vy for the best climbing performance, while Vx is used to clear obstancles in front of you.

So let me ask all readers about some facts about this airspeed indicator, and I bet this question is quite easy to reader as well. What happens if the pitot tube is blocked? What will happen to the air speed indicator? I will reveal the answer in this part of article, but I hope reader can make a good guess about this question.

2) Turn And Slip Indicator (TSI)
Turn And Slip Indicator, or simply we called it as TSI, or some of people would like to call it as turn coordinator, is a gyroscopic instrument operated by electric motor. Gyroscope, is more merely a new term to everyone, but it works so amazingly that it has quite number of properties. It posses rigidity and precession properties. Gyroscope is a device that a mass in the rotation perpendicular to the axis has the ability to stay its rotation on the axis. It is said to give the rigidity property into space. So in this instrument, only the needle which shapes like a plane was able to give roll information. But bear in mind that this instrument doesn't indicate pitch indication or information as stated in this picture and how many degree of roll you had made. However, you can make a Rate 1 Turn with this instrument. For Diamond DA-40, the gyroscope in this instrument is run by the electric motor. So, if the electric system fails, the needle fail to do its properties too. From here, I'm sure there's another question remain in this instrument. What does the ball do in this instrument? This is a good question though. When we roll the aircraft to the left, does the ball go to the left too? That happens if you roll your aircraft slowly to the left. This ball has two components, x-component, which is either centripetal force or centrifugal force in action and y-component, which is gravity force. If your aircraft roll to the left but the ball go to the right, your aircraft skids. This mean that despite your aircraft roll in a perfect circle, you are making your aircraft into a bigger circle compared to the original one. One example, happening like you have 100% power on a single piston aircraft, your aircraft will tend to yaw to the left due to four factors, Gyroscopic Effect, Slipstream Effect, Asymmetric Effect and Torque Effect. After your aircraft airborne, you will notice if you don't apply your rudder, your ball tends to go to the right. That's where most instructor will screw you and shout: "Ball Centre!". That's the meaning.

3) Directional Indicator (DI)
The word Directional Indicator indicates which direction you go. You will see this indicator with four main directions, North South East West. And here's the question, is this a compass? The answer is 50% yes and 50% no. Directional Indicator is basically a gyroscope mounted in this instrument. Compared to compass, this is easier to view, easier to read and easier to judge. But why do I say it's 50%? Compass always point into magnetic North, however, Directional Indicator don't point to North. Remember the properties I mentioned on top of this blog? It has the properties of rigidity in space, which means if your aircraft engine stops and no suction was given to this instrument (Sorry, forgot to mention this instrument is pneumatically driven), it will remain in that direction, while the compass still move in relation to Magnetic North. So there's a check we always do is Compass And DI Synchronize, which means if the compass show 210 heading, we have to set our DI to 210 heading. Normally each 15 minutes is needed to check again the heading of the indicator. DI needs to check every intervals with compass because it will "ran away" from its position due to some manoeuvre such as Steep Turn and etc.

4) Altimeter
Altimeter, I bet all aviation enthusiasts like this instrument compared to other instruments because this instrument hardly can find on our ground vehicles. As everyone know this altimeter is an instrument to indicate the height of aircraft either from ground or mean sea level (MSL) depend on your setting you had made. If you notice on the instrument, there's pressure setting on the instrument, either in milibars on the left or in Inches of Mercury on the right. Where to get that pressure setting from? Either you request from air traffic controller, or the controller give you the setting, or you get from Aerodrome Terminal Information Service (ATIS). This setting is very vital because the setting you made will endanger other traffic in your vicinity. So it's important to set your altimeter correctly. So altimeter works from a static pressure in relation to the vacuum pressure you set from the initial pressure setting. The higher the difference from the current static pressure to the vacuum pressure in the capsule, the higher the reading of altimeter instrument. So if your static port block at that time, the reading will stop at that point as well. For Diamond DA-40, the static port and pitot port is at the same location. Therefore, you must remove the pitot cover before flight or else you will get false and incorrect reading, result despair in the flight, as well disaster happening.

5) Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
This instrument, vertical speed indicator, played an important role on indicating whether the aircraft descends or ascends. The layout from this vertical speed indicator is related to the rate of change in static pressure. The higher the rate of change in static pressure, the greater the reading from this instrument. Since the reading acquires from the static port, it's mandatory and be caution that pitot cover must be removed once again. In addition, this instrument is quite easy to understand though. Every reading from this instrument show 100 feet per minute as displayed in this instrument.
So, in the end, there's one question remain, why the instruments are covered since those instruments are useful for us to monitor? I give you an example, when you drive your car, you drive by viewing the front scenery or the instruments inside your car? Which one is important? Of course the front scenery you are driving right? Same case applies to this, view yourself from the cockpit to the world outside. The instruments inside the cockpit is for us to scan, not to Look. What do you mean by scan? Know about the price scanner in the supermarket? How fast is the scan? Very fast right? Same applied to this, we are allowed to scan the instruments, blink to the instruments only by flipping and open the cover. That's why instructors cover those instruments for the sake of not staring and looking the instruments.
For my flight, instructor did screw us a lot though. But the preparation you made before you go for flight will help your flight to be learnt and absorb quickly. I did learnt about the effect of controls from those air exercises. Briefing are to be done before flight, which is very important to refresh your minds that you had prepared yourself. Instructor will teach all the techniques and your outcome to be learnt on that day. I advise my friends to revise the things that instructor teach on that day to refresh and enlighten their minds.
Today, me and Desmond backsit with each other to learn the mistakes and the new things to be learnt so that you can prepare yourself even better than previous. This is the flight I backsitted and guess what, he had different departure compared to mines, whereby normally we were asked to taxi to holding point Charlie, backtracking lineup Runway 03 for takeoff. However, his ones was taxied to taxiway Alpha, taking off from Runway 21. Wow, that's tremendously nice whereby he can try for his takeoff from Runway 21.
After his takeoff from Runway 21, he made his turn to the left, continuing his journey to training area Datai, which is located North. And we are hardly getting this kind of view from passenger seat though. And departing from Langkawi is quite relaxing compared to other aerodrome, which I believed as we have 3810m of runway to be used. Climbing ourselves for the training area Datai, and we are abeam of Langkawi's Runway, whereby we are on the East side of the airfield.
So let me talk about the backsitting area. Diamond DA-40 is a 4 seater aircraft, 2 at front and 2 at the back. You can find out the luggage compartment behind the back sit of the aircraft, whereby the maximum weight of the luggage is only 66 lbs, equivalent to 30kg. In the backsit area, incase of aircraft ditching, you can see this notice just above you on the right hand sitting.
Pulling the red lever downwards, whereby the rear canopy will release the door hinge. You can't break or open the canopy due to water pressure build outside the canopy. So release the door hinge will allow the rear canopy to remove easily.
Anyone saw the aircraft on the runway??
Langkawi, eventhough is an island, the surrounding is full of paddy fields. Greenish and yet beautiful.

So that's all for the topic today, but before I finish my blog, I would like to put this picture, which is very memorable that I had myself 2 hours on flying logbooks. Kudos and Congratulations to me.
See you guys, and thank you for reading my blog. :)

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